As the harm caused by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is becoming more and more obvious, countries around the world have realized the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In recent years, a series of international conferences, bilateral meetings and multilateral cooperation activities have also shown that how to reduce emissions has become an important international issue.
In 1988, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program jointly established the “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”; in December of the same year, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 43/53 on the protection of climate, which proposed that climate change is “a common concern of mankind.” Matters”. In 1992, the “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” adopted by the Rio Conference on Environment and Development stipulated that developed countries should take the lead in responding to the adverse effects of climate change and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the end of the 20th century.
In 1997, the third meeting of the parties was held in Kyoto, Japan, and the “Kyoto Protocol” was passed, requiring the contracting parties to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a certain percentage from the 1990 level in 2008-2012. In 2001, the Marrakesh Agreement was signed in Marrakech, Morocco. This meeting elected the clean development mechanism executive board and the technology transfer expert group. In 2007, the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held a meeting in Bali, Indonesia, and formulated a road map for Bali. The meeting emphasized international cooperation and included the United States as a party performing the contract. It also discussed the three issues of climate change adaptation, technology development and transfer, and funding that developing countries are concerned about. In 2009, the Copenhagen Conference was held. The key topic of this conference was “shared responsibility”. Many countries have made emission reduction commitments. In the 2010 Cancun Conference in Mexico, developed countries pledged to provide 30 billion U.S. dollars in the last three years to support the emission reduction actions of developing countries; the Durban Conference in South Africa in 2011 achieved five major results: First, adhere to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Authorized by the “Kyoto Protocol” and the “Bali Road Map”, the two-track negotiation mechanism has been adhered to, and the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” has been adhered to; Arrangements have been made; third, significant progress has been made on funding issues, and the Green Climate Fund has been launched; fourth, on the basis of the Cancun Agreement, the institutional arrangements for adaptation, technology, capacity building and transparency have been further clarified and refined; fifth is They discussed in depth the arrangements for further strengthening the implementation of the “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” after 2020, and clarified the relevant process to send a positive signal to the international community. The second commitment period of the 2013-2020 Kyoto Protocol was determined at the Doha Conference in 2012. At the 2013 Warsaw Conference in Poland, countries discussed the Durban Action Platform, funding, and compensation mechanisms for losses and damages. The 2014 United Nations Conference on Climate Change in Lima achieved three results: The first is to reiterate that countries must formulate and submit their nationally determined contributions after 2020 early next year, and make contributions to their nationally determined decisions after 2020. Information is required; second, adaptation is mentioned in a more prominent position in the national independent decision contribution, and the country can voluntarily incorporate adaptation into its own national independent decision contribution; third, the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Lima signed an agreement The draft of the Paris Agreement serves as the basis for the negotiation and drafting of the Paris Agreement in 2015.
International conferences to address global climate change have achieved certain results, and response measures have formed an ever-evolving and increasingly perfect international institutional framework. Jointly undertaking emission reduction obligations has become the unanimous voice of the international community. Inconsistent development stages and development needs, they will choose the emission reduction plan that suits them according to their own interests. Therefore, most of the agreements reached at international conferences are formed on the basis of multi-party coordination and compromise. Most of them are restrained from a moral point of view and have not fully realized legal restraints.